Molds are fungi just like mushrooms and yeast. Also like mushrooms, they reproduce by releasing spores into the air that land on everything, including your food and food storage containers. If those spores begin to grow, they create thin threads that spread through out their growing medium. These threads are the roots of the mold fungus, called mycelium. The stalk of a mold fungus is the portion above or on the surface of the food. It produces the spores and gives the mold its color. We've all seen examples of this when we discover a dish of something or other left way-y-y too long in the refrigerator and has become covered in mold fuzz.
Molds can grow anywhere they have a growing medium (their food), sufficient moisture and enough warmth. Some can even grow at refrigerator temperatures, albeit more slowly than they would if it were warmer. They can also withstand much more salt and sugar than bacteria, which is why you sometimes find mold in jellies and jams with their high sugar content and on cured products like ham or bacon with their high salt content.
In the past, it was felt a slight amount of mold was harmless and the food could be consumed anyway. For molds that were intentionally introduced into the food, such as the mold in bleu cheese, this is just fine. For the unintentional molds, it can be a very serious error in judgment. These unwanted molds might just be producing a toxic substance called a mycotoxin which can be very bad indeed. Mycotoxins are produced around the root or mycelium of the mold and the mold roots can penetrate very deeply into the food. These mycotoxins can survive for a long time in foods, and unfortunately most are not destroyed by cooking. The molds probably best known for this are the various Aspergillus varieties which produces a mycotoxin known as aflatoxin, but there are other dangerous molds as well, such as the Fusarium molds. Both of the above affect grain and some legumes. See B.3 Molds In Grains and Legumes.
IMPORTANT NOTE: In wet pack foods such as your home canned goodies, molds can do something else as well, possibly leading to lethal consequences. If they find their way into wet pack acid foods canned by the boiling water bath method, whether by reasons of improper procedure or contamination after the fact, they can consume the natural acids present in the food. The effect of this is to raise the pH of the food in the container, perhaps to the point that it becomes possible for spores of Clostridium botulinum, better known as botulism, to become active and reproduce. If you're not already aware of the consequences of botulism poisoning, please read the bacterial spoilage section below where it has an entry all its own. This is the most deadly kind of food poisoning there is. For this reason, moldy wet pack foods should be safely discarded.
Molds in low acid foods canned by the pressure canning method are equally dangerous and should also be discarded in a safe manner.
B.1 MINIMIZING MOLDS
You can do a number of things to minimize unwanted mold growth in your kitchen, food storage areas and refrigerators. If your kitchen is at all like mine, it is the refrigerator that is going to collect the most fungal growth. This can be dealt with by washing the inside every couple of months with a tablespoon of baking soda dissolved in a quart of warm water. Rinse clean and allow to dry. The black mildew that grows on the rubber door gaskets and other places can be dealt with by wiping down with a solution of three tablespoons of household bleach in a quart of water. I generally use a soft bristle brush for this.
The rest of the kitchen can be kept mold free by keeping it clean, and dry and by spraying occasionally with a product such as Lysol. Patches of mold growing in spots can be eliminated with the bleach solution used on the refrigerator doors.
Try not to purchase more fresh food than you'll be able to eat in a short period of time. This will keep you from having to deal with the moldy remains that didn't get eaten. If food does go moldy, don't sniff it. This is a good way to give yourself respiratory difficulties if you are at all susceptible to mold allergies. Moldy food should be disposed in such a manner that your animals and children won't be able to get into it. Mycotoxins are every bit as bad for your animals as they are for you.
Obviously, you don't have to throw out everything that shows a spot of mold on it. Some foods can be safely dealt with and still partially saved if they show signs of fungal growth. Below is a set of guideline from M. Susan Brewer, Ph.D., R.D., a specialist in food safety. Her articles and works are found in many state university extension services publications lists.
If the food shows even a tiny mold spot, follow these guide lines:
- Hard or firm foods with tiny mold spots can be trimmed; cut away the area around the mold (at least an inch) and rewrap in clean wrap. Make sure that knife does not touch the mold.
- Soft foods such as cheese slices, cream cheese, sour cream and yogurt should be thrown away.
Soft Cheeses, (Mozzarella, Brie, etc.)
Sour Cream, Yogurt, Cottage cheese
Bacon, Hot dogs, Sliced lunch meats
Opened canned ham
Most left-over food
Bread, Cakes, rolls, flour, pastry
Jam, Jellies, Syrups
Spinach, Lettuce, other leafy vegetables
Bananas, Peaches, Melons
Stored nuts, whole grains, rice
Hard Cheese (Cheddar, Swiss, etc.)
Bell Peppers, Carrots, Cabbage
Broccoli, Cauliflower, Brussels Sprouts
Misc.Survivalism FAQs maintained by Alan T. Hagan, firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright ©1996, 1997, 1998, 1999. Alan T. Hagan. All rights reserved.
Excluding contributions attributed to specific individuals all material in this work is copyrighted to Alan T. Hagan and all rights are reserved. This work may be copied and distributed freely as long as the entire text, my and the contributor's names and this copyright notice remain intact, unless my prior express permission has been obtained. This FAQ may not be distributed for financial gain, included in commercial collections or compilations or included as a part of the content of any web site without prior, express permission from the author.